Vector: Ixodes scapularis (Northeast, Midwest), I. pacificus (West); survival dependent on temperature and humidity, among other factors; habitats in the Northeast include forest/residential property edges, stone walls; habitats in the West include north-facing slopes (where the humidity is higher); habitats in the Upper Midwest may be associated with soils, among other factors.
Reservoir: Ixodid ticks, rodents, deer; deer serve as the primary source of bloodmeals for adult ticks, as well as the means of transport within and between human settlements.
United States Occurrence
North America AVHRR-derived NDVI image for 1994
Global mean AVHRR-derived NDVI image for 1987
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Health Information for International Travel 1999-2000. DHHS, Atlanta, GA.
Isselbacher, K.J., J.B Martin, E. Braunwald, A.S. Fauci, J.D. Wilson, D.L. Kasper (eds). 1994. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 13th Ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Tierney, L.M., Jr., S.J. McPhee, M.A. Papadakis (eds). 1996. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment. 35th Ed. Appleton and Lange, Stamford, CT.