THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE LANDSAT PROGRAM


INTRODUCTION
The Landsat Program benefits a wide community of users, including federal, state, and local governments, the global change research community, national security agencies, academia, and private sector users. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Department of Commerce and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior agree that the program provides a unique capability that should be continued. The agencies will therefore cooperate in the continuation of the Landsat program, including the development and operation of a Landsat follow-on (Landsat 7) system, as well as in planning for future operations and advanced technology development with other appropriate agencies.

This plan responds to P.L. 102-555 The Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and the Presidential Decision Directive/NSTC-3 on Landsat Remote Sensing Strategy dated May 5, 1994. The plan outlines an integrated approach to the management, development, operation and maintenance of a restructured Landsat Program responsive to Landsat user data needs into the next century.


CONCEPT
NASA, representing the U.S. Global Change Research Program and in its role as the lead agency for space research and development, will manage development of the Landsat 7 spacecraft, instrument, and ground system. NOAA, in its role as manager of the civil federal operational remote sensing systems, will be responsible for spacecraft and ground systems operations functions. The USGS will maintain the national archive of Landsat data and distribute data to users. Both NOAA and USGS will support NASA in the development of the Landsat 7 system. Each agency will assume management and funding responsibilities as outlined in this plan.

PROGRAM OBJECTIVES
The program will pursue the following objectives:

o Maintain Landsat program data continuity and minimize any data gap by:
- Acquiring a Landsat 7 system which, at a minimum, is functionally equivalent to Landsat 6, and launch the satellite no later than the end of CY98;
- Providing data which are sufficiently consistent in terms of acquisition geometry, spatial resolution, calibration, coverage characteristics, and spatial characteristics with previous Landsat data to meet requirements for global change research and other uses;
- Maintaining an archive of existing and future Landsat-type data;
- Generating and periodically refreshing a global archive of substantially cloud-free, sun-lit land mass scenes.

o Make such data available to all users at the cost of fulfilling user requests;

o Evaluate the need for, and alternative means of, implementing follow-on satellite and ground systems improvements beyond Landsat 7. This will include evaluation of potential changes in program management, funding responsibilities, data management and utilization, system configuration and operational concepts, as well as use of advanced technologies to improve performance, maintain data continuity, and reduce cost.


PROGRAM MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES
Organizational relationships are depicted in Figure 1. Public Law 102-555 established the Landsat Program Management (LPM) as the top level entity to integrate the efforts of the agencies involved in the Landsat Program at the Agency Administrator- and Department Secretary-level. NSTC Directive #3: Landsat Remote Sensing Strategy, identifies the agencies designated by the President as members of the LPM. Under the authority of the LPM, a Landsat Coordinating group (LCG) will be responsible for implementing a joint Management Plan and overseeing interagency matters, including coordination of budget, policy and program management, and resolution of issues pertaining thereto. The LCG will be chaired by NASA and comprise the senior agency officials designated as signers of this Management Plan

Organization chart

The NASA Associate Administrator for Mission to Planet Earth will be the senior agency official responsible for NASA program oversight and issue resolution. The NASA portion of the overall program and spacecraft development will be administered under the Director, Flight Systems Division, Office of Mission to Planet Earth. The ground system development will be administered under the Director, Operations, Data and Information Systems Division, Office of Mission to Planet earth. Technical and contract management will be performed by the Landsat Project Office at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Other government research and development agencies will be consulted on matters related to advanced technologies for land remote sensing capabilities beyond Landsat 7.

The NOAA Assistant Administrator for Satellites and Information Services will be the senior agency official responsible for NOAA program oversight and issue resolution. The NOAA portion of the program will be administered under the Director, Office of Systems Development. Technical and programmatic management will be accomplished by the Landsat Commercialization Division.

The USGS Director will be the senior agency official responsible for USGS program oversight and issue resolution. The USGS portion of the program will be administered under the Chief, National Mapping Division. National archive and ground segment operations will be carried out at the USGS Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC).

The respective responsibilities of the agencies represented in the LCG are as follows.

NASA is responsible for:
o Managing Landsat 7 system development;
o Developing, integrating, and testing the spacecraft, Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) instrument, launch vehicle services, and ground system for Landsat 7;
o Performing associated systems engineering and technical management functions;
o Launching the Landsat 7 Satellite (integrated spacecraft and ETM+), performing on-orbit checkout and ground system activation and calibration, and turning the Landsat 7 system over to NOAA for operations;
o Supporting Landsat 7 system operations, to include performing instruments calibration and data quality assessment;
o Planning for land remote sensing capabilities beyond Landsat 7, including promotion of research into advanced sensor technologies.
o Participating in NASA/NOAA/USGS Landsat program management and technical reviews and other activities as required.

NOAA is responsible for:
o Participating in ground system development;
o Supporting spacecraft/ground system integration and test;
o Managing the spacecraft and ground system operations and maintenance for the life of the spacecraft, including mission management and command and control of the spacecraft, data capture and processing through Level 0R, assuring systems performance and data quality, and distributing data to all users at the cost of fulfilling user requests.
o Facilitating commercial provision of data processing/product generation beyond level 0R;
o Participating in NASA/NOAA/USGS Landsat program management and technical reviews and other activities as required.

The USGS is responsible for:
o Maintaining the national archive for Landsat data;
o Participating in ground system development;
o Supporting spacecraft/ground systems integration and test;
o Performing operations functions on behalf of NOAA, including data capture and processing through Level 0R, assuring data systems performance and data quality, and supporting instrument calibration;
o Distributing data to all users at the cost of fulfilling user requests;
o Participating in NASA/NOAA/USGS Landsat program management and technical reviews and other activities as required.


FUNDING RESPONSIBILITIES
o The baseline funding responsibilities for the Landsat 7 program are provided in Attachment 1. Each agency's obligations are contingent on the availability of appropriated funds.

o Any requirements changes driven by desired improvements or increases in capability will be funded by the sponsoring agency. If it is agreed that an improvement benefits the interests of more than one of the participating agencies, it will be funded by a mutually acceptable sharing arrangement approved by the respective senior agency officials.

o Agency funding and management responsibilities for subsequent Landsat systems will be the subject of amendments to this agreement.


OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
o System Requirements: Top level requirements for the Landsat 7 system are provided as Attachment 2. The LCG is the change control authority for these requirements.

o Data Policy: The Landsat Data Policy Plan will be developed by NASA in accordance with the provisions of P.L. 102-555 and in coordination will NOAA and USGS.

o Implementing Arrangements: NASA, NOAA and USGS will develop working level interagency implementing arrangements to carry out their respective responsibilities outlined in this plan.

o International Cooperation: NOAA will have the lead responsibility, with NASA and USGS support, for seeking international cooperation and utilization of Landsat 7 data. NOAA will have the lead responsibility for arranging agreements with international ground station operators.

o Commercialization: NOAA will have the lead responsibility, with NASA and USGS support, for promoting and periodically assessing U.S. commercial opportunities for Landsat data-derived product development and marketing.

o Advanced Technologies for Development Beyond Landsat 7: NASA, in cooperation with other USG agencies, will pursue advanced technologies that hold promise as future land remote sensing systems. Conducting an advanced technology demonstration and evaluation effort with the goal of allowing for technology insertion in follow-on satellites is required. After soliciting comments from other U.S. agencies involved in remote sensing, NASA will prepare a coordinated technology plan to improve performance and reduce cost for future Landsat-type systems. The plan will identify relevant agency activities and funding that can contribute toward this goal.



APPROVED:

Dr. Gordon P. Eaton
Director, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior

Mr. Robert S. Winokur
Assistant Administrator for Satellite Information Services
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce

Dr. Charles F. Kennel
Associate Administrator
Office of Mission to Planet Earth, National Aeronautics and Space Administration





ATTACHMENT 1
BUDGET BASELINE (Then Year $M)^^

Budget table

^^ Subject to enabling legislation and contract negotiations
^ Includes DoD funds

NASA budget includes:
o Development of the Landsat 7 spacecraft
o Development and integration of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus instrument
o Launch in CY98 on a Delta-class launch vehicle from Vandenberg AFB
o Development of a ground system
o Program support/End-to-end systems engineering integration and test
o Development of instrument calibration and image quality assessment capability
o Planning for a follow-on land remote sensing capability

NOAA budget includes:
o Mission management, operations and maintenance for Landsat 7
o Ground Segment program support, development and maintenance
o Data capture and processing through Level 0R
o Instrument calibration and data quality assessment
o Distribution of Landsat 7 data to all users at the cost of fulfilling user requests

USGS budget includes:
o Maintenance of the national archive for Landsat data





ATTACHMENT 2
LANDSAT 7 SYSTEM LEVEL REQUIREMENTS

1. The Landsat 7 system shall operate in a sun-synchronous orbit with an orbit track repeat cycle of 16 days completing 233 orbits. The ground track of the Landsat 7 shall be maintained such that the Landsat 7 will fly over the Landsat Worldwide Reference System to an accuracy of 5 km at the equator. This orbit shall have a nominal descending equatorial crossing time of 10:00 am +/ 15 minutes.

2. The Landsat 7 system shall have on-board data storage with capacity to support the global archive data acquisition requirements when Landsat 7 is out of view of the U.S. Landsat 7 Ground Station.

3. The Landsat 7 system shall use CCSDS-compatible formats for all forward and return links.

4. The Landsat 7 system shall provide wideband communications at X-band frequencies at 150 Mbps.

5. The Landsat 7 system operations, housekeeping and safety functions shall be supported by S-band resources.

6. The Landsat 7 system shall carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as its primary payload.

6.1. The ETM+ shall be a multispectral sensor capable of providing land surface imagery for six visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared bands with 30m (nadir) spatial resolution, for one thermal infrared spectral band with 60 m (nadir) spatial resolution, and for on panchromatic spectral band with 15 m (nadir) spatial resolution over a 185 km swath centered on nadir.

7. The Landsat 7 system shall have the capability to capture, process, archive and distribute Landsat 7 ETM+ data.

8. The Landsat 7 system shall provide for receipt, capture and process to Level 0R the equivalent of 250 ETM+ scenes per day in response to user's requests.

9. The Landsat 7 system shall provide the capability of making available 100 Level 0R ETM+ scenes per day.

10. The Landsat 7 system shall provide archiving and distribution of ETM+ data through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center.

11. The Landsat 7 system shall support acquisition of housekeeping and payload data and assessment of data quality.

12. The Landsat 7 system shall have capability to provide ETM+ data to a network of non USG ground stations.

END


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