warming of the Earth's surface would cause
the temperature-sensitive microbes to decompose carbon more rapidly, releasing increasing amounts of
carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Scientists from the Carnegie Institution and Stanford University collaborated with Potter and Klooster. The
Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) Biosphere model shows annual production of carbon dioxide from soils
is 10 times that produced by fossil fuel emissions. The model shows that plants, however, absorb carbon
dioxide in amounts equal to that produced by the soils, balancing the output.
The model also shows 60 percent of the carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed at tropical latitudes.
Monthly inputs of climate and solar radiation and satellite data at a one-degree latitude/longitude
resolution for the entire globe drive the model. Soil and vegetation types are also included as inputs.
The CASA model can be used to study how tropical deforestation and changes in land use affect emissions of
atmospheric trace gases. It also can bring a better understanding of the role of forests and land-use
change in global biogeochemical cycles.
The CASA model is also one of the first to simulate global soil emissions of nitrous oxide, another
important greenhouse gas. We are also investigating the global impacts of fertilizer applications on
greenhouse gas fluxes. A significant part of the nitrogen used in agricultural fertilizer ends up in the
air, dramatically changing atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide. When it finds its way into the
stratosphere, it also aids ozone depleting reactions.
Models like the CASA approach, which are verified by independent observations and continually refined, are
an important element of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). ESE focuses on understanding the links
between large environmental systems, in this case land surfaces, atmosphere and climate. The goal of ESE is
to collect, analyze and distribute data that will allow humans to make informed policy decisions about how
their actions are affecting the global environment.